The magnificent Ancient Theatre A of Larissa was oriented to the south, to the so-called 'free' ancient market which according to reliable archaeological evidence is placed in the modern city center that is the extent of current squares, and Central Post Office.
In this market there was the temple of Apollo Kedroou, to be built in the early 4th century BC In the holy mosque in the resolutions of the Municipality of Larissa and judicial decisions and citizens dedicated offerings in honor of the god. In offerings were anidrymena the sanctuary include column Theotimou Thessalus rider was killed in the battle of Tanagra of 457 eg and possibly the honorary decree for Chrysogonos from Edessa who had protected the Thessalian cities from the raids of the Aetolians (the fact mentioned by the ancient writer Polybius) in 217 BC The City Council awarded the title of Larissa citizen and gave him the right to acquire land and house in Larissa.
After the battle of Kynoskephalai in 197 BC the city rulers follow pro-Roman policy and gain privileges by the new most dominant in Greece. This season was erected in the sanctuary honorary decree to two followers of King Eumenes II who had visited Larissa with his brother Attalus (Titus Livius, 42,58k.ex.) The 171p.Ch. The honorees following participated in the negotiations for the alliance of Larissa with parchment and Romans against the Macedonians.
Northeast Mail Square should was the temple of Zeus Eleftherios who probably built in the 2nd century BC The temple was the place where were kept the official documents of the Thessalian, as evidenced by inscriptions. In honor and in memory of the liberation of Thessaly by the Macedonians were established in 196 BC Eleftheria, celebration held every four years in the capital of the Commonwealth of Thessaly, Larissa, in the presence of delegations from all Thessalian cities.
The construction of the Ancient Theatre is directly linked to the cult of Dionysus and the celebration of theatrical performances. It was still center of social life of ancient Larissa. This is evidenced by a number of findings, mainly inscriptions and sculptures has generously give us the excavation. In the 1st century. B.C. converted by the Romans in the arena to commit only official celebrations gladiator fights, beast fights, mimon performances, Clowns, magicians and many others.
Since the theater was transformed into an arena, ancient Larissa at the same time built a simple second ancient theater of subsequent plays and making other group events. The ancient inscriptions argue this fact as well speak clearly that during the period of Roman rule in the great feast panthessaliki Larissa, the "freedom", were held alongside the equestrian competitions at the Hippodrome and poetry competitions, dance and music.
A 'Ancient Theatre of Larissa which could fit more than 10,000 spectators was built in the first half of the 3rd century. B.C. during the reign of the king of Macedonia, Antigonus Gonatas. Not worked, about six centuries, until the end of the 3rd century. A.D. or the beginning of the 4th century. A.D. whereby the operation abruptly. After a strong earthquake that took place in Larissa in the 7th century. A.D. collapsed much of epitheatre and second floor of the stage, into the interior of the orchestra.
Hollow ancient theater of Larissa constituted by the same slope of the hill "Fortress" which was shaped in terraces for installation of seats. In the middle of the hollow was created around a corridor width of two meters, the frieze , which was used for the comfortable movement of spectators. He is paved with large slabs of white marble, which is clicked on massive limestone. Separated the monument in epitheatre especially theater.
The epitheatre had the following structure: At the point of contact with the frieze built a strong retaining wall height 1.30 m, width 2.00 m, which is the main face had lined with white marble stone plinths. The lower part of the wall is decorated with Lesbian ripple. In ancient times the epitheatre would twenty staircases twenty-two stands, fifteen rows of seats and a height of about 8,50m. The epitheatre the ends of the right-left did not cover the total width of the main theater, but was limited by 2,00m.
The main theater was divided with ten staircases in eleven tiers, with twenty-five rows of seats of which belonged to the first order of presidencies. The seats tread on schistose infrastructure and have elaborate work carving both fronts and the upper surface, where a groove was used to tread foot viewers of the overlying rows.
Orchestra , 25.50m diameter. runs a created drainage conduit width external 1.90. for the removal of rainwater. It is covered and made with marble slabs bearing elaborate carving work. The pipeline passes through the foundation of the scene with two exits south of the end of this room. In excellent state of conservation.
The lanes with anallimatikous walls perfectly preserved at a depth of 4,00m. They are made of blocks of white marble with masterful job carving. The streets of marble paved lane was and why it was not just small access roads to the monument, but were to follow the great processional way. The road on the right lane, communicated with the second ancient theater and then to the main exit of Larissa to Falanna and Olossona, the wooden bridge of Pinios, directly opposite the current Technical Chamber. The road left passage communicated with the marble paved street, found a few years ago on a plot at the corner of Roosevelt street and Cyprus. The brilliant way he started from the sacred area of the Mail Square, went along with the current and Ermou street and Pan somewhere in the beginning of Filellinon and Venizelos Street, twisted sharply to the left over the theater.
The retaining wall of the right lane (western retaining) revealed in length 40,86m., Height 4.50m. width 3,55m.
The retaining wall of the left lane (eastern retaining) revealed in length 24,75m., Width 3,55m.kai height 3,16m. and lost beneath the branches of the eastern side of the theater. At the end of the retaining walls at both ends of the orchestra, closing and opening of the theater horseshoe.
The scene is the best preserved part of the monument. It is essentially a self-contained, majestic edifice consisting of four rooms with three entrances between them, having a total length 37,50m. and a height of 3.00 M .. The two middle rooms interconnecting, functioned as clothing sites of actors and position of dramaturge, while the two outermost bearing entrance on the south side served as sideboard Based on archaeological research scene has three main construction phases. The first goes back to the first half of the 3rd century BC and is synchronous with the construction of the hollow and the retaining walls. The four rooms were made with carved limestone, from ancient quarries at "Krintiri" Tyrnavos.
In the second phase (first half of the 2nd century BC) in front of the stage building, to the side of the orchestra, one colonnade, the scene, 20,00m total length constructed. and 2.00 m wide. It consists of six pilasters six monolithic Doric pilasters at camp who clicked on efthyntiria height 0,30m.apo marble stone plinths. Over the Doric pilasters and columns based on the Doric entablature, which was placed retroactively, parallel to the scene and occasionally they entered vertically stools benches connecting the colonnade to the front wall of the tent. For safe bracing of Meteora desks strengthened the front wall of the stage with an internal series limestone slabs. The spotlight had three entrances on the same axis with the entrance of the tent.
The third construction phase of the scene dating to the years of Roman Emperor Octavian Augustus (28 BC -14 BC), Tiberius (14 m.Ch.37 AD) and German (37 AD 41 A.D.). Honorary inscriptions in honor of the three emperors were found on the fronts of the cornice of the Doric entablature of the scene. During this period, he removed the front row of limestone slabs of the side rooms and replaced with marble. Added also the front inherent marble Doric pilasters with Doric capitals and at the corners carved four pillars. This marble, like the epitheatre, the main theater and the lane from the ancient quarry of Municipal Department "Kastri" Agia. During the digging portion of Venizelos street pavement (IouliosAfgoustos 2006) revealed layer poros Doric columns, south of the scene belonged to Modern Gallery with the first phase.